Chuvashia (Russian: Чувашия; Chuvash: Чӑваш Ен, romanized: Chăvash Yen), officially the Chuvash Republic — Chuvashia,[note 1] is a republic of Russia located in Eastern Europe. It is the homeland of the Chuvash people, a Turkic ethnic group. Its capital is the city of Cheboksary. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,251,619.[14]

Chuvash Republic — Chuvashia

Republic

Чувашская Республика — Чувашия
Other transcription(s)
 • Chuvash Чӑваш Республики — Чӑваш Ен
 • Transliteration Chăvash Respubliki — Chăvash Yen

Flag of Chuvash Republic — Chuvashia

Flag

Coat of arms of Chuvash Republic — Chuvashia

Coat of arms

Anthem: “State Anthem of the Chuvash Republic”[3]
Map of Russia - Chuvashia (disputed Crimea).svg
Coordinates: 55°33′N 47°06′E / 55.550°N 47.100°ECoordinates: 55°33′N 47°06′E / 55.550°N 47.100°E
Country Russia
Federal district Volga[1]
Economic region Volga-Vyatka[2]
Capital Cheboksary
Government
 • Body State Council[4]
 • Head[6] Oleg Nikolayev[5]
Area

[7]

 • Total 18,300 km2 (7,100 sq mi)
 • Rank 74th
Population

 (2021 Census)[8]

 • Total 1,186,909
 • Estimate 

(2018)[9]

1,231,117
 • Rank 39th
 • Density 65/km2 (170/sq mi)
 • Urban 58.8%
 • Rural 41.2%
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[10])
ISO 3166 code RU-CU
License plates 21, 121
OKTMO ID 97000000
Official languages Russian;[11] Chuvash[12]
Website http://www.cap.ru

GeographyEdit

The Chuvash Republic is located in the center of European Russia, in the heart of the Volga-Vyatka economic region, mostly to the west of the Volga River, in the Volga Upland. It borders with the Mari El Republic in the north, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in the west, the Republic of Mordovia in the southwest, Ulyanovsk Oblast in the south, and the Republic of Tatarstan in the east and southeast. There are over two thousand rivers in the republic—with the major ones being the Volga, the Sura, and the Tsivil—as well as four hundred lakes. Some of the Volga River valley reservoirs are in the north of the republic, and the Sura River flows towards the Volga along much of the republic’s western boundary.

The climate is moderately continental, with the average temperatures ranging from −13 °C (9 °F) in January to +19 °C (66 °F) in July. Annual precipitation varies between 450 and 700 millimeters (18 and 28 in), but is uneven from one year to another. Natural resources include gypsum, sand, clay, sapropel deposits, phosphorite, and peat. There are oil and natural gas deposits, although their extraction has not yet been commercially pursued. Forests, mostly in the south along the Sura River, cover approximately 30% of the land.[15]

EtymologyEdit

According to Chuvash popular belief, Chuvash is a Shaz-Turkic adaptation of Lir-Turkic Suvar, an ethnonym of people that are widely considered to be the ancestors of the modern Chuvash people.[16] In ancient Greek, the suffix “-ia” was often added to the end of names of places or tribes to form nouns that referred to the people or the territory associated with them.

The suffix “-ia” is commonly used to form country and region names, as seen in examples such as “Russia,” “Siberia,” and “Lithuania.” Thus, the addition of the suffix “-ia” to “Chuvash” resulted in the name “Chuvashia,” which refers to the homeland of the Chuvash people.

HistoryEdit

A map of the Chuvash Republic

The ancestors of the Chuvash were Bulgars and Suars, Oghur Turkic tribes residing in the Northern Caucasus in the 5th to 8th centuries. In the 7th and 8th centuries, a part of the Bulgars left for the Balkans, where, together with local South Slavs, they established the state of modern Bulgaria. Another part moved to the Middle Volga Region (see Volga Bulgaria), where the Bulgar population that did not adopt Islam formed the foundation of the Chuvash people.[15]

During the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, the steppe-dwelling Suar migrated north, where Volga Finnic tribes, such as the Mordvins and Mari lived. The Chuvash claim to be the descendants of these Suars who assimilated with the Mari. In 1242, they became vassals of the Golden Horde. Later Mongol and Tatar rulers did not intervene in local internal affairs as long as tribute was paid annually to Sarai. When the power of the Golden Horde began to diminish, local Mişär Tatar Murzas from Piana and Temnikov tried to govern the Chuvash area.

During Ivan the Terrible’s war of conquest against the Khanate of Kazan, in August 1552, the Chuvash Orsai and Mari Akpar Tokari princes swore their loyalty to the Grand Duchy of Muscovy at Alatyr on the Sura River. Between 1650 and 1850, the Russian Orthodox Church sent Chuvash-speaking missionaries to try to convert the Chuvash to the Orthodox faith. A group of these missionaries created a written Chuvash language. Most of the Chuvash who stayed in the area became Orthodox Christians, but some remained pagan.

On May 15, 1917, the Chuvash joined the Idel-Ural Movement and in December 1917 joined the short-lived Idel-Ural State, when an agreement was reached with Tatar representatives to draw the eastern border of Chuvashia at the Sviyaga River. In 1918–1919, the Russian Civil War encompassed the area. This ended with victory for the Bolsheviks. To gain support from the local population, Lenin ordered the creation of a Chuvash state within the Russian SFSR. On June 24, 1920, the Chuvash Autonomous Oblast was formed, which was transformed into the Chuvash ASSR in April 1925.

Administrative divisionsEdit

PoliticsEdit

Seat of the Government of the Chuvash Republic

Residence of the President of Chuvash Republic

Until 2012, the Chuvash Republic officially had the status of a state. In the constitution of Chuvashia (version 6 – dated September 13, 2011 No. 46), the following was fixed: “The Chuvash Republic is a republic (state) within the Russian Federation.”

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the republic was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Chuvashia CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the Republic Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Republic administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Republic of Chuvashia is the fundamental law of the region. The State Council of the Chuvash Republic is the republic’s regional standing legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Republic’s Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters.

DemographicsEdit

Despite not being large, the republic is one of the most densely populated regions in the Russian Federation.[citation needed] Population: 1,251,619 (2010 Census);[14] 1,313,754 (2002 Census);[17] 1,336,066 (1989 Census).[18]

The capital (and largest city) is Cheboksary (population 464,000 in 2010). Cheboksary is situated mostly on the southern bank of the Volga in the northern part of the republic (one northern bank district was added in the second part of the 20th century), approximately 650 kilometers (400 mi) east of Moscow. Nearby to the east is the next largest city, Novocheboksarsk (population 124,000 in 2010).

SettlementsEdit

Largest cities or towns in Chuvashia

2010 Russian Census

Rank Administrative Division Pop.
 
Cheboksary
 
Novocheboksarsk
1 Cheboksary City of republic significance of Cheboksary 453,721  
Kanash
 
Alatyr
2 Novocheboksarsk City of republic significance of Novocheboksarsk 124,097
3 Kanash Kanashsky District 45,607
4 Alatyr Alatyrsky District 38,203
5 Shumerlya Shumerlinsky District 31,722
6 Tsivilsk Tsivilsky District 13,479
7 Kugesi Cheboksarsky District 11,917
8 Kozlovka Kozlovsky District 10,359
9 Vurnary Vurnarsky District 10,086
10 Yadrin Yadrinsky District 9,614

Vital statisticsEdit

Unbaptized Chuvash people in 1870

Baptized Chuvash people in 1870

School children in Chuvashia

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service Archived April 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
Average population (× 1,000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
1970 1,227 22,465 10,993 11,472 18.3 9.0 9.3
1975 1,266 22,956 12,450 10,506 18.1 9.8 8.3
1980 1,302 22,612 13,908 8,704 17.4 10.7 6.7
1985 1,311 24,385 13,913 10,472 18.6 10.6 8.0
1990 1,339 21,116 13,545 7,571 15.8 10.1 5.7 2.12
1991 1,342 19,113 13,459 5,654 14.2 10.0 4.2 1.96
1992 1,346 16,673 14,141 2,532 12.4 10.5 1.9 1.72
1993 1,347 14,410 16,876 −2,466 10.7 12.5 −1.8 1.48
1994 1,345 14,498 18,003 −3,505 10.8 13.4 −2.6 1.48
1995 1,345 13,842 17,727 −3,885 10.3 13.2 −2.9 1.41
1996 1,343 13,542 16,880 −3,338 10.1 12.6 −2.5 1.37
1997 1,341 12,822 16,762 −3,940 9.6 12.5 −2.9 1.30
1998 1,339 13,300 15,957 −2,657 9.9 11.9 −2.0 1.34
1999 1,337 12,129 17,997 −5,868 9.1 13.5 −4.4 1.22
2000 1,331 12,363 18,640 −6,277 9.3 14.0 −4.7 1.25
2001 1,324 11,986 18,980 −6,994 9.1 14.3 −5.3 1.20
2002 1,314 12,956 19,808 −6,852 9.9 15.1 −5.2 1.30
2003 1,304 13,171 19,978 −6,807 10.1 15.3 −5.2 1.32
2004 1,295 13,734 19,371 −5,637 10.6 15.0 −4.4 1.38
2005 1,286 13,133 19,682 −6,549 10.2 15.3 −5.1 1.32
2006 1,277 13,291 18,900 −5,609 10.4 14.8 −4.4 1.34
2007 1,269 14,835 18,642 −3,807 11.7 14.7 −3.0 1.50
2008 1,262 14,967 18,436 −3,469 11.9 14.6 −2.7 1.51
2009 1,257 16,103 17,492 −1,389 12.8 13.9 −1.1 1.63
2010 1,252 16,174 18,186 −2,012 12.9 14.5 −1.6 1.65
2011 1,249 16,165 16,923 −758 12.9 13.6 −0.7 1.67
2012 1,245 17,472 16,607 865 14.0 13.3 0.7 1.83
2013 1,242 17,351 16,324 1,027 14.0 13.1 0.9 1.85
2014 1,240 17,224 16,535 689 13.9 13.3 0.6 1.88
2015 1,237 17,138 16,266 872 13.8 13.1 0.7 1.91
2016 1,236 16,403 16,258 145 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.87
2017 1,233 13,947 15,571 −1,624 11.3 12.6 -1.3 1.65
2019 11,624 15,196 −3,572 9.5 12.4 -2.9
2020 11,305 18,845 −7,540 9.3 15.5 -6.2

Note: TFR[19]

Ethnic groupsEdit

According to the 2021 Census, ethnic Chuvash make up 63.7% of the republic’s population. Other groups include Russians (30.7%), Tatars (2.7%), Mordvins (0.7%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.[20]

Ethnic
group
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census[14] 2021 census[20]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Chuvash 667,695 74.6% 777,202 72.2% 770,351 70.2% 856,246 70.0% 887,738 68.4% 906,922 67.8% 889,268 67.7% 814,750 67.7% 684,930 63.7%
Russians 178,890 20.0% 241,386 22.4% 263,692 24.0% 299,241 24.5% 338,150 26.0% 357,120 26.7% 348,515 26.5% 323,274 26.9% 329,991 30.7%
Tatars 22,635 2.5% 29,007 2.7% 31,357 2.9% 36,217 3.0% 37,573 2.9% 35,689 2.7% 36,379 2.8% 34,214 2.8% 29,092 2.7%
Mordvins 23,958 2.7% 22,512 2.1% 23,863 2.2% 21,041 1.7% 20,276 1.6% 18,686 1.4% 15,993 1.2% 13,014 1.1% 7,707 0.7%
Others 1,301 0.1% 6,703 0.6% 8,596 0.7% 10,930 0.9% 14,874 1.3% 19,606 1.4% 23,599 1.8% 18,298 1.6% 23,085 2.2%
1 112,104 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[21]

GeneticsEdit

Osteopetrosis affects 1 newborn out of every 20,000 to 250,000[22] worldwide, but the odds are much higher in the Russian region of Chuvashia (1 of every 3,500–4,000 newborns) due to genetic traits of the Chuvash people.[23][24]

ReligionEdit

According to a 2012 survey,[25] 64.7% of the population of Chuvashia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 3% of the population (mostly Tatars) follow Islam, 3% are unaffiliated Christians, 1% follow indigenous faiths (Vattisen Yaly, Chuvash folk religion). In addition, 24% of the population declares to be “spiritual but not religious”, 1% is atheist and 2.3% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.[25] There is a growing population of Jehovah’s Witnesses among the people despite the official ban by the Russian Government.

Study of religion is compulsory for schoolchildren in Chuvashia. Of the students, approximately 76.9% are enrolled for Orthodox Studies, 16.0% for Secular Studies, 15.7% for World Religions Studies and 1.4% for Islamic Studies.[27]

EducationEdit

There are five higher educational institutions, including the Chuvash State University, the Chuvash State Pedagogical Institute, and the Chuvash State Agricultural Academy located in Cheboksary. These, together with 28 colleges and technical schools, are currently attended by approximately 45,000 students.

EconomyEdit

The Chuvash Republic is the most populous and fertile area in the middle Volga region. There are deciduous woodlands on fertile black earth. In agriculture, wheat and sugar-beet, pigs and beef cattle have become more important than the rye, oats, barley and dairy cattle which are typical for the whole area.

The republic is Russia’s center for growing hops and is famous throughout the country for its long history of beer brewing. It is also a major center for electrical engineering, especially in the area of power transmission and control systems.[15] Other leading industries are metalworking, electricity generation, and chemical manufacturing. There are also large timber-working mills at Shumerlin.

The largest companies in the region include Khimprom Novocheboksarsk (revenues of $164.54 million in 2017), Accond (confectionery maker$, 152.55 million), Cheboksary Instrument-Making Plant ($142.26 million), NPP EKRA (power engineering$, 101.13 million).[28]

TransportationEdit

The transport network in the republic is one of the most developed in Russia. The republic’s system of roads, railroads, waterways, and airports closely ties the region with others in and outside of Russia.[15]

RoadsEdit

Only four roads in the Chuvash Republic are classified as important federal highways. The most important is Highway M-7, which runs from Nizhny Novgorod through the northern parts of the republic from Yadrinsky Nikolskoye via Malye Tyumerli, Kalmykovo, Khyrkasy, Novye Lapsary, Kugesi, Shivlinsk, Staraya Tyurlema, to Kazan in the Republic of Tatarstan. It also forms a connection via Chuvashia through the southern suburbs of Cheboksary and Novocheboksary to the Mari El Republic and the Vyatka Highway. Part of this road is classified as a motorway, the only one in the republic. From Yadrinsky Nikolskoye, the federal road P-178 runs through Yadrin, Shumerlya, Alatyr, to Surskoye in Ulyanovsk Oblast and further to Ulyanovsk. In the eastern part of Chuvashia, the federal road A-151 runs from Tsivilsk through Kanash, Komsomolskoye, Chkalovskoye, Karabay-Shemursha, Shemursha to Ulyanovsk and Saratov. All other roads in Chuvashia are classified as local area roads.

Automobiles, trucks, and buses are the major forms of transportation, with the republic ranking fourth in highway density in all of Russia.[15] Cheboksary is situated on one of the main highways of the Russian Federation leading from Moscow to the industrial areas of Tatarstan, the southern Urals, and Siberia. A recently completed bridge across the Volga River in the north connects the republic to the developed Ural and Volga Federal Districts. To the south, highways connect Chuvashia with Saratov and Volgograd. Extensive public and private bus systems connect all towns within the republic with each other and with the surrounding regions.[15]

The standard speed of transportation of containers by road is 400 kilometers (250 mi) per day. The average time of delivery from Cheboksary to Moscow is 1.5 days; to Saint Petersburg, 2.5 days; and to Western Europe, 10 to 15 days.[15]

RailwaysEdit

The railway network is highly developed, convenient, and accessible year-round. One of the largest railway junctions of Russia – Kanash—is in the center of the republic. Via Kanash, the rail system connects the major towns in Chuvashia with the big industrial centers of eastern Siberia, the Urals, and Moscow. Express trains are reliable and provide a low-cost, comfortable way to travel. Express trains to and from Moscow are available every day, with the overnight journey taking approximately fourteen hours each way.

The following lines serve railway traffic in the Chuvash Republic:

  • Arzamas-Kanash line
  • Krasny Usel – Kanash -Sviyazhsk line
  • Kanash – Cheboksary II – Cheboksary I – Cheboksary II – Novocheboksarsk line

In addition to these lines, there are 26 kilometers (16 mi) of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11+2732 in) gauge industrial lines running from Altyshevo station, on Alatyr-Kanash section, to Pervomaysky, located just west of Starye Aybesi in Alatyrsky District.

All railway lines in Chuvashia are operated by the MPS Gorky Railway Division. Steam locomotives were mostly replaced in 1970 by diesel locomotives and when the main Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk line was electrified, the diesel locomotives were replaced by electric ones.

The Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk line is a double track main line, while the others are single track lines. The 84 km (52 mi) Sviyazhsk-Kanash section was electrified in 1986, the 142 km (88 mi) Kanash-Sergach section in 1987.

In 1967, there were four daily passenger trains in both directions on the Alatyr-Kanash line. One of them was the semifast Sochi-Sverdlovsk-Sochi long-distance transit train, halting only at Alatyr, Buinsk, and Kanash. Cheboksary was connected by daily semifast passenger train to Moscow. The travel time was 17.30[clarification needed] hours for the 758 km (471 mi) journey. 21 express and passenger trains used the Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk main line in the summer high season in both directions. Of these, four did not halt in Chuvashia. Most of the remaining semifast trains stopped at Shumerlya, Piner, Burnary, and Kanash. Four pairs of semifast trains also stopped at Tyurmari. In the 1999–2000 timetable, 11 pairs of Moscow-Kanash-Kazan express trains stopped at Kanash. The Chuvashia 53/54 express trains between Moscow and Kanash took 11.23 hours, back 10.57 hours.[clarification needed]

In addition to Russian 1,524 mm (5 ft) gauge railways, there were six 750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in) narrow gauge railway lines: two short peat briquette industry lines at Severny and Sosnovka on the north side of the Volga, and four forest railways at Shumerlya, Atrat and Kirya. All opened in the 1930s. In 1965, their total length was 145 kilometers (90 mi):

  • Shumerlya-Kabanovo-Rechnoy-Burak-Krasnobar forest railway – total length 72 kilometers (45 mi)
  • Shumerlya-Kumashka-Salantshik-Yakhaykino forest railway – 46 kilometers (29 mi)
  • Kirya-Lesopunkt Lyulya forest railway – 13 kilometers (8.1 mi)
  • Atrat-Dolnaya Polyana-Lesozavod Gart forest railway – 14 kilometers (8.7 mi)

All lines were closed in the economic uncertainty after the breakup of the Soviet Union.

RiversEdit

The Volga and Sura Rivers connect Chuvashia to a national and international water network. To the south, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Moscow and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, cargo transportation is possible from Chuvash river ports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk (on the Black Sea), Astrakhan, and ports situated on the Danube River. However, the river is frozen from December through April.[15] Cheboksary is a frequent stop on the many boat tours of the Volga.[15]

AirEdit

The international Cheboksary Airport receives both cargo and passenger aircraft of practically all types and sizes. There are regularly scheduled flights to Moscow and other destinations. Additionally, Cheboksary is about a four-hour drive from Strigino International Airport, the airport primarily serving Nizhny Novgorod, which offers a greater number of flights, including connections through Aeroflot and Belavia.

CultureEdit

While Russian is the predominant business language, the Chuvash language is still spoken by many, especially in the country. The Chuvash language belongs to the Oghur subgroup of the Turkic language group. In ancient times a runic system of writing was used. Chuvashi now uses a modified Cyrillic script that was adopted in 1871.

There has been a resurgence of native Chuvash pride, with many people looking back to their Chuvash roots and exploring the culture and heritage and relearning the language. Most building signs, road signs, and announcements are in both Russian and Chuvash.

At present Chuvash Republic has six professional theaters:

  • Chuvash State Opera and Ballet Theater
  • Chuvash State Academic Drama Theater
  • Chuvash State Academic Song and Dance Ensemble
  • Chuvash Children’s Theater
  • Chuvash State Puppet Theater
  • Chuvash State Philharmonic Society
  • Russian State Drama Theater
  • Chuvash State Youth Theater
  • Chuvash State Experimental Drama Theater

and over 30 amateur theaters, a Philharmonic Society, an Academic Folk Song and Dance Group, an Academic Choir, a Chamber Orchestra, and some professional concert groups.

There are also more than 20 museums, exhibition halls and modern art galleries.

  • Chuvash National Museum.
  • Art Museum
    • Museum of Vasily Chapayev
    • Literature Museum named after K.Ivanov
    • Museum and Exhibition Center
    • Culture and Exhibition Center «Raduga»
    • Chuvash Beer Museum
    • Chuvash State Geological Museum
    • Museum of Cheboksary
    • Space Museum
    • Art Gallery
    • Contemporary Art Center
    • Art Gallery «6Х7»

Chuvash Republic has more than 565 public libraries, the book collection being over 10 million units.

  • The Chuvash National Library

Monuments of Architecture

There are about 627 monuments of architecture in Chuvashia, including 54 of national importance: the Vvedensky Cathedral (1657), the Holy Trinity Monastery (1566), the Salt House, the houses of Chuvash famous merchants (Zeleischikov, Solovtsov, the Efremov family) (18th-19th century) in Cheboksary, the Tolmachev family house and Trinity Cathedral (18th century) in the town of Tsivilsk, the Burashnikov house in the town of Yadrin.

Surhuri (Chuvash: Сурхури) is the Chuvash national holiday.

SportEdit

Chuvashia, along with Mordovia, has given some of the best modern race walkers, as Vera Sokolova, Olimpiada Ivanova, Yelena Nikolayeva and Vladimir Andreyev. Additionally, the 2008 IAAF World Race Walking Cup was held in Cheboksary.

Creative unionsEdit

  • Union of the Writers of the Chuvash Republic

RadioEdit

  • Chuvash national radio
  • Radio of Chuvashia

See alsoEdit

  • Chuvash national symbols

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Russian: Чувашская Республика — Чувашия; Chuvash: Чӑваш Республики — Чӑваш Ен

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: “Собрание законодательства РФ”, No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Law #12
  4. ^ Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 77
  5. ^ “Putin dismissed the head of Chuvashia, Mikhail Ignatiev, in connection with a loss of confidence”. NewsRU (in Russian). January 29, 2020. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  6. ^ Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 68
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). “Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)”. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  8. ^ “Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации”. Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  9. ^ “26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года”. Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  10. ^ “Об исчислении времени”. Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. ^ Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 8
  13. ^ “Chuvashiya | republic, Russia”.
  14. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Steven Brown and Olin Lagon (June 2001). “Economic Overview of the Republic of Chuvashia”. United States Peace Corps Business Development Volunteers in Chuvashia. Archived from the original on July 4, 2005. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
  16. ^ Salmin 2020, pp. 1–2.
  17. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  18. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  19. ^ “БГД”.
  20. ^ a b “Национальный состав населения”. Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  21. ^ “Впн-2010”. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  22. ^ “Osteopetrosis: MedlinePlus Genetics”. medlineplus.gov.
  23. ^ “Остеопетроз рецессивный (мраморная болезнь костей) – ДНК-диагностика – Центр Молекулярной Генетики”. www.dnalab.ru.
  24. ^ “Медицинская генетика Чувашии”. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016.
  25. ^ a b c “Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia”. Sreda, 2012.
  26. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. “Ogonek”, № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  27. ^ “Всё больше чувашских школьников предпочитают изучать светскую этику”.
  28. ^ Выписки ЕГРЮЛ и ЕГРИП, проверка контрагентов, ИНН и КПП организаций, реквизиты ИП и ООО. СБИС (in Russian). Retrieved October 20, 2018.

SourcesEdit

  • Нестеров, В. А. (1981) [1981]. Населённые пункты Чувашской АССР. 1917–1981 годы: Справочник об административно-территориальном делении (in Russian). Чувашское книжное издательство.
  • Государственный Совет Чувашской Республики. 30 ноября 2000 г. «Конституция Чувашской Республики», в ред. Закона №34 от 26 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в главу 7 Конституции Чувашской Республики». Вступил в силу 10 декабря 2000 г. Опубликован: “Республика”, №52, 9 декабря 2000 г. (State Council of the Chuvash Republic. November 30, 2000 Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, as amended by the Law #34 of June 26, 2014 On Amending Chapter 7 of the Constitution of the Chuvash Republic. Effective as of December 10, 2000.).
  • Государственный Совет Чувашской Республики. Закон №12 от 14 июля 1997 г. «О государственных символах Чувашской Республики», в ред. Закона №59 от 30 июля 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Чувашской Республики “О государственных символах Чувашской Республики”». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: “Чаваш ен”, No.30, 26 июля – 2 августа 1997 г. (State Council of the Chuvash Republic. Law #12 of July 14, 1997 On the State Symbols of the Chuvash Republic, as amended by the Law #59 of July 30, 2013 On Amending the Law of the Chuvash Republic “On the State Symbols of the Chuvash Republic”. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Salmin, Anton K. (2020). “The History of the Chuvash People in Ethnographic Facts” (PDF). Journal Tourism Studies & Practices (RTEP) (2: Geplat: Caderno Suplementar): 1–2. ISSN 2316-1493.

Further readingEdit

  • Vovina, Olessia P. (December 2000). “Building the road to the temple: Religion and national revival in the Chuvash Republic”. Nationalities Papers. 28 (4): 695–706. doi:10.1080/00905990020009683. S2CID 153834810.
  • Культурное наследие Чувашии (in Russian). Национальная библиотека Чувашской Республики. Retrieved February 6, 2012.

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to Chuvashia at Wikimedia Commons
  •   Chuvashia travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Official website of the Chuvash Republic
  • About flag and coat of arms of the Chuvash Republic
  • Chuvashia news
  • Why do Chuvash people not speak in Chuvash? (article in Russian)
  • “As it is in the Chuvash Republic the Chuvash are not needed?!”


На основании Вашего запроса эти примеры могут содержать грубую лексику.


На основании Вашего запроса эти примеры могут содержать разговорную лексику.

Перевод “Чувашская Республика” на английский


Ключевые слова: Чувашская Республика, регионализация, политический национализм, интеллектуалы, культурные практики.



Key words: Chuvash Republic, regionalization, political nationalism, intellectuals, cultural practices.


Ключевые слова: Чувашская Республика, первая половина 1990-х годов, регионализация, федерализация, политический национализм.



Key words: Chuvash Republic, the first half of the 1990s, regionalization, federalization, political nationalism.


14 Чувашская Республика – приглашение к сотрудничеству!


Всероссийский фестиваль народного творчества “Родники России” (Чувашская Республика);



“Russia’s Roots”, a national festival of folk art (Chuvash Republic)


Чебоксары, Чувашская Республика в сети Интернет


Ключевые слова: Чувашская Республика, чувашский национализм, президент Н. Федоров, национализация режима.



Key words: Chuvash Republic, Chuvash nationalism, President Nikolai Fedorov, nationalization of regime.


Чувашская Республика – субъект современной Российской Федерации.



Chuvash Republic is the subject of contemporary Russian Federation.


Чебоксарский Район (Чувашская Республика) 835261 Телефон


В структуру компании входит завод по производству солнечных модулей в г. Новочебоксарск (Чувашская Республика) мощностью 97,5 МВт в год.



The company has its own manufacturer of thin-film solar PV modules located in Novocheboksarsk (Chuvash Republic), with the capacity to manufacture 97.5 MW of solar modules annually.


всероссийский конкурс народных мастеров декоративно-прикладного искусства “Русь мастеровая” (Чувашская Республика, Воронежская область);



The “Russian Masters” national competition of folk arts and crafts (Chuvash Republic, Voronezh Province)


Вы можете направить нам свои комментарии и отзывы почтой по адресу: ООО «Джей Тудей», 428000, Российская Федерация, Чувашская Республика, г. Чебоксары, проспект Ленина, д. 14, пом.



You can send your comments and feedback to us by mail on Address: Jey Today LLC, 428000, Russian Federation, Chuvash Republic, Cheboksary, Lenin Avenue, 14, room 10 or email: hello@jey.today.


По данным Отделения-НБ Чувашская Республика Волго-Вятского ГУ Банка России, в 2017 году в Чувашии выявлено 185 поддельных банкнот.



According to the Branch-NB of the Chuvash Republic of the Volga-Vyatka State Institution of the Bank of Russia, in 2017,185 counterfeit banknotes were found in Chuvashia.


Наименьшим размером чистых активов в ТОП-1000 обладало ПАО ЧЕБОКСАРСКИЙ ЗАВОД ПРОМЫШЛЕННЫХ ТРАКТОРОВ, ИНН 2126003074, Чувашская Республика – Республика Чувашия.



The smallest amount of net assets in the TOP-1000 list was hold by CHEBOKSARY TRACTOR PLANT PJSC, INN 2126003074, Chuvash Republic.


Компания владеет заводом по производству солнечных модулей в г. Новочебоксарск (Чувашская республика) мощностью 97,5 МВт в год, а также собственным научно-техническим центром.



In addition, the company owns a factory for the production of solar modules in the city of Novocheboksarsk (Chuvash Republic) with a capacity of 97.5 MW per year, as well as their own scientific and technical center.


В 2018 году ПАО «Транснефть» проведены рабочие встречи в рамках работы в области импортозамещения с представителями 4 субъектов Российской Федерации (Тюменская область, Алтайский край, Чувашская республика и Машиностроительный кластер Республики Татарстан).



In 2018, Transneft held working meetings on import substitution with representatives of four Russian regions (Tyumen Region, Altai Territory, Chuvash Republic and the Machine-building Cluster of the Republic of Tatarstan).


Практически была охвачена вся Чувашская Республика.



Virtually the whole of Britain has been covered.


Чувашская Республика – открытый для инвесторов регион и готова поддержать реализацию проектов в алюминиевой отрасли.



The Republic of Chuvashia is open to investments and is ready to support projects in aluminum sphere.


Бережно относится Чувашская Республика к своему культурному достоянию, сохраняя, обогащая и приумножая его.



The Chuvash Republic cherishes its cultural property, keeping, enriching and increasing it.


74 место – Чувашская Республика – 133 авто на тысячу населения


Местонахождение и юридический адрес: Чувашская Республика,

Ничего не найдено для этого значения.

Результатов: 440. Точных совпадений: 39. Затраченное время: 116 мс

Documents

Корпоративные решения

Спряжение

Синонимы

Корректор

Справка и о нас

Индекс слова: 1-300, 301-600, 601-900

Индекс выражения: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200

Индекс фразы: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200

чувашская республика

  • 1
    Чувашская республика

    Универсальный русско-английский словарь > Чувашская республика

  • 2
    Чувашская Республика

    Русско-английский географический словарь > Чувашская Республика

  • 3
    Чувашская Республика

    Американизмы. Русско-английский словарь. > Чувашская Республика

  • 4
    Чувашская Республика – Чаваш республики

    Универсальный русско-английский словарь > Чувашская Республика – Чаваш республики

  • 5
    Чувашская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика

    History: ( the) Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    Универсальный русско-английский словарь > Чувашская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика

  • 6
    Чувашия

    Американизмы. Русско-английский словарь. > Чувашия

См. также в других словарях:

  • Чувашская Республика — Чӑваш Республики …   Википедия

  • Чувашская республика — Чӑваш Республики Флаг Чувашии …   Википедия

  • Чувашская Республика – Чувашия — Чувашская Республика Чӑваш Республики Флаг Чувашии …   Википедия

  • Чувашская Республика — Чувашия — Чувашская Республика Чӑваш Республики Флаг Чувашии …   Википедия

  • Чувашская республика — Чаваш республики — Чувашская Республика Чӑваш Республики Флаг Чувашии …   Википедия

  • Чувашская Республика — Чувашия — Российская Федерация Федеральные округа:   Дальневосточный • Приволжский • Северо Западный • Северо …   Бухгалтерская энциклопедия

  • Национально-региональный компонент государственного стандарта общего образования (Чувашская Республика) — Национально региональный компонент государственного стандарта общего образования в Чувашской Республике компонент государственного стандарта общего образования. Устанавливается Чувашской Республикой. Утверждение национально регионального… …   Википедия

  • Республика Чувашия — Чувашская Республика Чӑваш Республики Флаг Чувашии …   Википедия

  • Чувашская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика — Чувашская АССР Герб …   Википедия

  • Чувашская АССР — Герб Флаг …   Википедия

  • Чувашская автономная область — Страна СССР …   Википедия

Chuvash/Chavash Republic
Чăваш Республики
Чувашская Республика

</p><p>Capital <b><a href=Cheboksary/Shupashkar</a>

Chuvashia (Chuvash: Чăваш Республики; Russian: Чувашская Республика) is a regional subdivision of Russia and the homeland of Bulgar Turkic Chuvash people. Chuvashia is located in central Russia, and was officially established in June 1920.

The capital is Cheboksary, a city located in the north of the republic on the banks of the Volga River. Roughly 600,000 people live in Cheboksary and its nearby satellite city Novocheboksarsk. Chuvashia has educated population, a pro-business government, and a well-developed infrastructure.

Chuvashia is located in the center of the European part of Russia, in the heart of the Volga-Vyatka region, midway between Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan. The republic is not large, at 18,000 square kilometers, but is one of the most densely populated regions in the Russian Federation, with a total population of 1.4 million people.

It is bordered to the north and west by the Volga River, with the Mari El Republic to the north and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast to the west. To the south it borders Mordovia and Ulyanovsk Oblast, to the east Tatarstan. The capital city of Cheboksary is the republic’s major industrial center. Cheboksary is situated on the banks of the Volga River, approximately 650 km east of Moscow.

Chuvashia’s central location gives companies located here easy access to some of the most industrially developed regions of the country. The majority of the republic is rural in character, with Cheboksary (population 453,700 in 2004) and Novocheboksarsk (population 125,600 in 2004) in the north along the Volga River being the major industrialized cities. Forests, mostly in the south along the Sura River, cover approximately 30 percent of the land.

Time zone
Chuvashia is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD).

Natural resources
Chuvashia”s natural resources include gypsums, sands, tripoli, clays, sapropel deposits, phosphorite and peat.

Climate
Chuvashia has a moderate continental climate. Average temperatures range from -13° C (-9° F) in January to 19° C (66° F) in July. Annual precipitation can reach 500 mm. The varied continental climate offers opportunities for both summer and winter recreational activities.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

National Anthem

More about Chuvashia:
http://www.hunmagyar.org/turan/chuvash/chuvash.html_CHUVASHIA
Discover Chuvashia
Culture of Chuvashia
http://www.usrbc.org/Members-Only/Russian%20Government%20and%20Regions/Regions/Chuvashia.htm#people%20hist_The Republic of Chuvashia
http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ru-cu.html_Chuvashia(russia). Presentation of Chuvashia. The Flag. The Coat of Arms. Buket Chuvashii.
http://heraldry.hobby.ru/eng/e.chuv.html_Blazons of Chuvash Pepublic Towns
http://www.beer.itc.ru/ru/rchuv.htm_Chuvash Beercaps

Travel to Chuvashia:
http://www.martincountylibrarysystem.org/_Travel to Moscow, St.Petersburg and Chuvashia Summer 2006
http://www.rostour.net/russia/chuvashiya_Chuvashia
http://www.marriage-4u.com/tours.php_Cheboksary

Opinions about Chuvashia:
Suicide on the Volga River: A Tale of Two Republics (WARNING! Explicit Vocabulary and Content.)
Chuvashia Sketches By Vladimir Kiselyov, translated by Jean MacKenzie

Chuvashia overview

Chuvash Republic or just Chuvashia is a federal subject of Russia, part of the Volga Federal District. Cheboksary is the capital city of the region. Chuvashia is the native land of the Chuvash people.

The population of Chuvashia – 1,236,000 (2015), the area – 18,343 sq. km.

Chuvashia history

There are several hypotheses of origin of the Chuvash people. Most scientists are inclined to the following theory. In ancient times Chuvash ancestors (nomadic herdsmen) lived in the area of Central Asia. The first time they were mentioned in written sources in the 4th-3rd centuries BC under the names of the Bulgarian and Suvar peoples.

The centuries-old communications of the Chuvash people ancestors with the Scythians, Saka, Sarmatians, and Alans enriched the culture of the Bulgarians and Suvars – their economic activities, daily life, religion, clothing, jewelry, ornaments.

In 1236, Volga Bulgaria was devastated by the Mongols led by Batu Khan. Part of the population was forced to move into the central and northern parts of present Chuvashia. In 1438, Kazan Khanate separated from the Golden Horde. In addition to the Tatars, Kazan Khanate included the ancestors of the Chuvash, Mari, Mordovians, Udmurt, and Bashkir peoples.

More Historical Facts…

By the end of the 15th century, a separate Chuvash nation, which kept the Bulgarian language and culture, formed in the territory of today’s Chuvashia. The formation of new nations led to the aggravation of interethnic relations in Kazan Khanate. In 1546, Chuvash and mountain Mari separatists appealed to Russian help in the fight against the Khanate.

In 1551, with the founding of the Russian town of Sviyazhsk, the territory inhabited by mountain Chuvash joined the Russian State. In 1552, after the fall of Kazan, Chuvash who lived on the plain area joined the Russian State too. Voluntarily becoming part of Russia Chuvash were able to survive as a nation.

Several fortified settlements were built in Chuvashia: Cheboksary (first mentioned in chronicles in 1469, founded as a fortress in 1555), Alatyr, Tsivilsk, Yadrin. Pretty soon they became important centers of trade and crafts. The inhabitants of the region were engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry, bee-keeping, processing of wood, leather and wool.

In the 19th century, especially after the abolition of serfdom in 1861, capitalism began to develop in Chuvashia. However, compared with the central regions of Russia, this process was much slower. In the late 19th – early 20th centuries, there were about 30 factories with about 6 thousand workers employed. The vast majority of the population of Chuvashia (about 96%) lived in rural areas. During the period from 1859 to 1897, the population of Chuvashia increased from 436,000 to 660,000.

June 24, 1920, Chuvash Autonomous Region was established. April 21, 1925, it was transformed into Chuvash Autonomous Republic. In June 1925, the town of Alatyr became part of the republic. In 1929-1936, the region was part of Nizhny Novgorod (from 1932 – Gorky) krai.

In the 1950s-1970s, the average annual growth rate of total industrial output of Chuvashia Republic was ahead of the average for Russia. In 1970, the construction of Cheboksary hydroelectric station began and, in 1972 – Cheboksary Tractor Plant. About 80% of the region’s industry was concentrated in two adjacent cities (Cheboksary and Novocheboksarsk). In rural areas, the industry was represented mainly by small food and woodworking enterprises.

Intensive growth of the industry led to significant migration of rural population to the cities, especially to Cheboksary. In Soviet times, gradual withdrawal of the Chuvash language from the education system led to the loss of basic literacy for the majority of the language speakers. A lot of Chuvash retained only the ability to speak the native language on very basic level.

In 1992, the independent Republic of Chuvashia, part of the Russian Federation, was formed and approved by Boris Yeltsin, the first President of Russia.

Chuvashia scenery

Village life in Chuvashia

Village life in Chuvashia

Chuvashia landscape

Chuvashia landscape

Author: Ruslan Goryainov

Chuvashia road

Chuvashia road

Author: Andrey Suroven

Chuvashia features

Located in the center of European Russia (the Volga-Vyatka region, between Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod), the republic is one of the most densely populated regions of the country. The largest cities and towns of Chuvashia are Cheboksary (474,000), Novocheboksarsk (125,000), Kanash (46,000), Alatyr (35,000), Shumerlya (30,000).

The Day of the Republic of Chuvashia is celebrated annually on June 24. According to the 2010 census, Chuvash account for 67.7% of the population, Russians – 26.9%, Tatars – 2.8%, Mordvinians – 1.1%.

Chuvashia, situated in the steppe and forest natural areas, has temperate continental climate. The average temperature in January – minus 12.9 degrees Celsius, in July – plus 18.8 degrees Celsius.

The main natural resources of the region are clays, gypsums, sands, peat, phosphorite. Chuvashia is an important center of Russian electrical engineering (power transmission and controls systems). Also such industries as chemical, power generation, metalworking are highly developed.

The region has a relatively well-developed transport infrastructure including several federal highways M7, P178, A151, railroads and waterways (the Volga, Sura rivers).

The national park “Chavash Varmane” and Prisursky Reserve are the main natural attractions of Chuvashia.

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